Financial institutions determine their financial performance by carefully using their assets to generate revenues. The primary sources of financial assets include interest from personal and commercial property loans. The liabilities include the expenses associated with interest-bearing customer deposits. The difference between the potential assets and liabilities is the net interest income.
Let’s find more about what is net interest income.
Here is an example to help you understand NII easily.
For the financial year 2022-23, XYZ Bank has obtained a loan portfolio of Rs. 15 crore at an average 5% interest rate. The interest revenue, therefore, stands at Rs. 75 lakhs. Furthermore, with outstanding customer deposits of Rs. 10 crores at 2% interest, the interest expense turns out to be Rs. 20 lakhs. XYZ Bank will thus generate Rs. 55 lakhs as the NII for 2022-23.
The difference between interest income from interest-earning assets and the expenses banks bear to pay interest bearing liabilities is how we define net interest income.
The interest income earned by banks and financial institutions from their investments is the interest revenue. Therefore, interest revenue is an important component of the income statement. The period for interest revenue calculation is the same as the income statement. Financial entities record their interest revenue at the top of their annual income statement to align with the transaction dates.
Thus, interest revenue for any financial year = number of months entities holds the receivables * monthly interest earned.
To calculate interest revenue, one should multiply the gross financial holdings with the effective interest rate it carries.
Interest revenue = Gross financial asset * interest rate
Net interest margin is an important indicator of profitability and financial growth for any bank or financial institution. Simply put, it is the difference between the interest income earned from financial assets and the interest paid on deposits adjusted for the total income generating assets.
The interest income margin formula is as follows:
NIM= net interest income/total assets *100
The margin on NII represents a ratio similar to the gross profit margin for non-banking financial entities. Interestingly, the net interest margin does not include fees and service charges earnings.
Potential investors can earn interest incomes in their portfolios in numerous ways. Typically, investors tend to employ their money market account and reinvest payments earned over a while. Types of assets that help investors earn interest income are:
Other sources that generate interest income for investors include hybrid financial instruments, debt securities, certificates of deposit and more.
The financial institutions rely on interest-earning assets to maintain a steady flow of returns. Common sources of net interest income of banks includes mortgages and various types of loans, viz., personal, commercial, auto, etc. The interest earning capacity for each asset depends on how they value their holdings. For example, institutions may charge variable interest rates for the same mortgage loan, depending on their customer’s credibility.
Consequently, the interest earning capacity is also dependent on economic shocks. For example, incidences of stagflation and growing unemployment rate may cause borrowers to default, thus lessening the overall interest earning.
Statistically, there has been a gradual decline in the net interest income earned by banks and other financial institutions. One factor responsible for that is the declining interest rate margins. Rather, banks instead aim to generate more revenue through trading and various financial operations.
The fluctuating nature of the economy and the general increase in non-performing assets are essential barriers to earning more interest income.
Ans: Non-performing assets, also popularly known as NPAs are loans, credits or any advances that have not been paid back to the financial institution. In case of an extended period of non-payment of loans, the lender is going to force the borrower to sell a valuable asset that was part of their debt agreement.
Ans. Net interest margins are the differences between interest income generated and the income paid adjusted for their total assets. Higher the margin, the better the bank’s financial performance and thus more profitable to invest in its stock.
Ans. There are various factors that can affect net interest margin. One of the most significant factors is supply and demand. The increase in loan availing and monetary policies set by central banks also play a vital role in affecting the net interest margin.
Ans. Interest incomes are essentially earned on financial assets. When assets turn into NPAs, it halts their income generating capacity and thus the overall interest income falls.
Ans. Net interest income is the difference between interest earned on assets and interest paid via deposits to customers. Net interest margin is an adjusted measure representing the percentage of interest income on total assets.
Disclaimer: Mutual Fund investments are subject to market risks, read all scheme-related documents carefully.
This article has been prepared on the basis of internal data, publicly available information and other sources believed to be reliable. The information contained in this article is for general purposes only and not a complete disclosure of every material fact. It should not be construed as investment advice to any party. The article does not warrant the completeness or accuracy of the information, and disclaims all liabilities, losses and damages arising out of the use of this information. Readers shall be fully liable/responsible for any decision taken on the basis of this article.
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