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Diabetes is a metabolic disease that causes high blood sugar. It generally happens when your body is not able to take sugar and use it to generate energy. The most common type is Type 2 diabetes or diabetes mellitus, where some other types include, Type 1 or juvenile diabetes, gestational diabetes and prediabetes.
An estimated record says that in the year 2021, India witnessed diabetes cases of approximately 7 crore with undiagnosed diabetes cases of about 3 crore. This proportion of undiagnosed people was estimated to be around 53.1%. 
Unmanaged diabetes can lead to serious consequences causing damage to internal organs like the heart, kidneys, etc. Your body uses insulin to move sugar from the blood into the cells to store and produce energy. However, with diabetes, insulin production or effective usage of insulin becomes difficult for your body.
|Symptoms||Dry mouth, weight loss, frequent urination, slow healing cuts, etc.|
|Complications||Cardiovascular issues, kidney failure, nerve damage, erectile dysfunction, etc.|
|Causes||Body self-destroys insulin-producing cells, obesity during pregnancy, etc.|
|Onset||1 year to 5 years approximately |
|Diagnosis||Glucose challenge test, fasting plasma glucose test, A1c test, etc.|
|Prevention||Healthy diet, yoga, limit alcohol consumption, etc.|
|Medication||Sulfonylureas, Biguanides, DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors, etc.|
Here is a detailed overview of diabetes and its symptoms, types, diagnosis, treatment and complications. Read on to know more!
Amidst its many other general symptoms, diabetes can reduce energy in both men and women. Other than this, men can also develop symptoms like erectile dysfunction and poor muscle strength.
Additionally, women also face symptoms other than the general ones, like, vaginal dryness, dry to itchy skin, urinary tract or yeast infections and many more. It is ideal to keep a check on your blood sugar levels to avoid developing a diabetic condition.
The general symptoms or signs of diabetes are as follows:
The main causes of diabetes occur due to the circulation of too much glucose in your bloodstream. However, the specific cause of each type of diabetes is different.
As each type of diabetes has its own set of specific causes, the complications and medications required may differ as well. Doctors usually start prescribing medicines after finding out the root cause of a specific diabetes case.
Depending on the type of diabetes, its main causes are as follows:
It is generally an immune system disease, where the body attacks and then destroys insulin-producing cells in your pancreas. However, the doctor exactly does not know why insulin production behaves in such a way.
Without this insulin, it is difficult for glucose to enter your cells, and thus, they start building up in your bloodstream. Genes might play a role in developing Type 1 diabetes, and a virus may trigger an immune system attack.
This happens when your body cells become resistant to insulin. It results in a glucose level rise as the body cells restrict insulin from working properly, failing your pancreas to keep up and overcome the resistance.
Moreover, it can also occur due to the combination of genetics and lifestyle factors. Besides, if you have obesity or weight problems, the risk of diabetes increases as the cells become more resistant to insulin effects.
Gestational diabetes is a type which usually occurs as a result of extreme hormonal changes during pregnancy. These hormones are produced by the placenta making a pregnant woman’s cells resistant and less sensitive to the effects of insulin.
Women who are overweight during pregnancy or those who gain weight gradually have a high chance of suffering from gestational diabetes. It basically causes high blood sugar during pregnancy but mostly recovers after pregnancy. 
The different types of diabetes are as follows:
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which your body tends to attack itself. This is not a popular diabetic type, with only 10% of people getting affected by this. In most cases, the cells in your pancreas get destroyed, especially those producing insulin.
It usually affects children and young adults, but it can also develop at any age. This is why it is also called juvenile diabetes. It is also sometimes called insulin-dependent diabetes, as people affected by this type need to take insulin every day.
Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes. Here, your body either does not produces enough insulin or your body cells do not respond to insulin normally. This type usually targets middle to old age people.
Being the most common type, up to 95% of diabetic patients suffer from Type 2 diabetes. It is also commonly known as adult-onset diabetes and insulin-resistant diabetes. Additionally, some aged people with Type 2 diabetes also call it ‘having a touch of sugar’.
Prediabetes is a medical condition where you have higher than normal sugar levels but not very high to be officially diagnosed with diabetes. It can merely be termed as a symptom of diabetes than its type. However, unmanaged pre-diabetes can eventually lead to Type 2 diabetes.
This case does not show symptoms, and thus, it is recommended to be on regular check-ups, especially if any one of your family has been diabetic. In case you become pre-diabetic, exercise regularly and eat healthy foods to prevent further complications.
Gestational diabetes is the development of high blood sugar in some women during pregnancy. This type of diabetes is caused due to the insulin-blocking hormones produced by the placenta but usually goes away after pregnancy.
If pregnant women have this diabetes type, they are at a higher risk of developing complications during pregnancy. Additionally, there are chances of developing Type 2 diabetes later in life, both for the mother and the child. It is not reported through symptoms but identified through prenatal screening. 
In case of diabetes, it is important to visit your doctor as soon as you start getting symptoms. Moreover, if anyone in your family is already suffering from this condition, there are high chances that you might also be affected.
If you are in the preliminary stages of diabetes, your doctor will offer you certain medications. If the condition does not get better over time, you will be asked to go through certain tests. After the tests, your prognosis will be established, and the required medications will be allotted.
The primary way of diagnosing and managing diabetes is by undergoing routine blood tests and checking your glucose level at regular intervals. Anyone who is observing symptoms of diabetes or is at risk of the condition due to genetics should immediately get themselves tested.
In cases of gestational diabetes, pregnant mothers are routinely tested during their second trimester or third trimester. This blood test to check sugar levels specifically starts between the 24th week and 28th week of pregnancy.
The various types of general diabetes diagnostic tests are as follows:
If you have diabetes, it is crucial to keep your blood glucose level within control as prescribed by your doctor. Normally, your blood sugar level should be within a range of 80 and 130 mg/dL before a meal and less than 180 mg/dL after a meal.
For this, maintain a strict diet and take all the prescribed medications in time with minimal exercise. You can also check your sugar level on a regular basis to maintain it properly. 
The Food and Drug Administration has approved over 40 medications along with external insulin for the treatment of diabetes.  Among all these medications and drugs, there are very common ones which are usually prescribed by doctors.
Moreover, there are many types of insulin for diabetes. In some cases, a diabetic patient might require both medication and insulin or either of the one. Healthcare providers recommend them according to your situation.
For treating Type 2 diabetes, a healthcare provider usually recommends medicine, and for Type 1 diabetes, an external source of insulin is prescribed.
The medications or treatments available to cure Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are as follows:
Among many other important measures, the most important one is to maintain a healthy diet. Additionally, regular yoga and exercise can also be of great help.
Moreover, if someone from your family has this condition, it is important for you to keep your blood sugar levels in check. For this, you can cut fat and refined carbohydrates from your diet or reduce intake.
Some more important measures or steps you can take to prevent diabetes are as follows:
High blood sugar levels can cause serious harm to the different parts of your body. Once the blood vessels incur damage, your nerves might not work properly either, which would lead to a feeling of numbness.
If left untreated, serious complications can build up over time and cause chronic complications that last for a lifetime. Moreover, you may also develop sudden complications, which are referred to as acute complications.
The various complications caused due to diabetes are as follows:
The average monthly cost of treating diabetes in India is between ₹3000 and ₹8000 per month. You can further break this cost into consultancy fees of around ₹700, lab tests of approximately ₹500 with the medicine and insulin cost of around ₹6000.
Hence, the estimated cost of routine care treatments for diabetes ranges approximately between ₹35000 and ₹75000, depending on the drugs and insulin you are taking. 
Diabetes can be a dangerous disease if kept unmanaged for a longer time. Its monthly treatment cost might not be as high as some other health issues, but in case of complications, it can cost you a lot.
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Yes, it is possible for a person to face death due to diabetes if it remains undiagnosed and unmanaged for a long time. Severely high or low glucose levels can cause harm to your body, like heart failure, heart attack, stroke, coma, and kidney failure. All these complications can cause sudden death, especially all cardiovascular diseases.
Diabetic patients should cut down on sweets, sugary drinks and anything fatty or salty. Try to include more fruits, vegetables, whole grains and lean protein into your diet. It is also recommended to eat every few hours to keep the blood sugar levels stable.
At present, there is no cure for Type 2 diabetes. However, it is possible to control blood sugar levels to a point when you won’t need any medication in your day-to-day life.
The primary complication that diabetes can cause is heart problems. Diabetes patients are more likely to develop heart disorders with symptoms such as chest pain, stroke, heart attack, etc.
Some signs that indicate that maybe your Type 2 diabetes is getting worse are: Frequent urination Unexplainable weight loss Dehydration Recurring renal infections
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