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Cancer is one of the leading causes of death, costing nearly 10 million lives in 2020 . It mainly develops due to uncontrolled cell growth leading to the formation of tumours. Malignant tumours could be life-threatening. Identifying the symptoms and getting the right treatment are crucial for preventing further complications and even becoming cancer free.
However, you should note that cancer treatments are usually costly. In addition to this, you might have to face some of the severe side effects of the treatment. Hence it is essential that you stay both financially and emotionally prepared once you are diagnosed with this fatal disease.
Here’s a quick overview of the symptoms, complications, diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Take a look:
|Symptoms||Fatigue, lump formation, changes in skin pigmentation, difficulty in swallowing, high fever, unexplained weight loss, continuous bleeding due to bruises.|
|Complications||Anaemia, hair loss, fertility issues, memory and concentration problems, sexual health issues, problems in sleeping, nausea and vomiting, etc.|
|Causes||Mutation in genes leads to abnormal increase in the growth of cells.|
|Onset||No specific onset period; it can appear at any age at any time.|
|Diagnosis||Blood tests, imaging tests, biopsy, genetic testing|
|Prevention||Quitting smoking, daily exercise, preventing sun damage, following a healthy diet|
|Medication||Azacitidine, 5-fluorouracil, 6-mercaptopurine, capecitabine, cladribine, clofarabine, fludarabine|
To understand cancer better, check out the details. Keep reading!
Following are some early symptoms of cancer that you will need to look for :
Additionally, you should also be aware of the causes of cancer which you can look for to identify it.
Cancers are caused due to genetic mutations, the tendency of which happen to run in a patient’s family for generations . However, there are several risk factors associated that can increase the chances of cancer.
These include :
However, there are different types of cancer, based on the region of body where cancer is developing.
The different types of cancers are as follows :
Hence, it is essential to consult a doctor at the appropriate time to identify the right type of cancer and know the course of treatment.
You must visit a doctor as soon as possible once it is confirmed that you are suffering from cancer after the different diagnostic tests. This is essential as any delay in the treatment can cause severe complications. This results in the advancement of cancer stages and prominently reduces the chances of recovery and survival.
Depending upon the severity of symptoms and your family history, the doctor can suggest some diagnostic tests to confirm the occurrence of cancer.
The different tests that are available for the diagnosis of cancer are as follows :
Blood tests for cancer may include:
Imaging tests for cancer may include:
In this procedure, the lab technician usually extracts a portion of the tissue to identify the presence of cancerous cells in them. The different types of biopsies available are as follows:
Many doctors recommend genetic testing to identify the inheritance and location of mutation. Accordingly, they can identify the stage of cancer during diagnosis and suggest some therapy that is specific to the target gene.
Once the results of cancer tests are positive, the doctor will decide the treatment progression based on a variety of factors.
Cancer diagnosis consists of three steps:
The doctors decide the most appropriate prognosis of cancer based on different factors like :
Based on the prognosis, your doctor will decide the appropriate treatment for you so that you can get cured of this health condition as early as possible.
The different treatments available for cancer are as follows :
Additionally, there are several cancer medications that doctors prescribe as treatment. Some of these are :
However, you can also take specific steps to prevent this disease from occurring to avoid the costly treatments and their severe side effects.
The steps for prevention of cancer are as follows :
These preventive measures allow you to escape the various complications of the disease and the side effects that can occur due to prolonged treatment.
If left untreated, cancer can progress to advanced stages, leading to some severe complications, such as   :
Cancer treatments are usually expensive, as there are several unplanned expenses that a patient will have to bear during the process . It usually depends on various factors like treatment duration, type of cancer, location of the treatment, and so on.
If the treatment duration is long, the cost of treatment will proportionally increase. Moreover, the cost involved in different cancer treatments notably differs from each other. You might also have to pay much more for advanced treatment options.
Cancer can prove to be life-threatening if you delay its diagnosis and subsequent treatment. Hence, it becomes imperative to consult an oncologist as soon as you start noticing prominent symptoms. This will help them to identify cancer at an early stage and undertake the necessary treatment options at the earliest.
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You can do the following to ensure proper self-care during cancer: Take adequate rest Maintain a proper diet chart Exercise regularly Join a support group for motivation
Food items that you should mandatorily add to your diet during cancer treatment are as follows:  Plant-based proteins like vegetables, beans, legumes, nuts, and seeds. Food with healthy carbohydrates which are minimally processed, like bran, whole wheat, and oats Food with omega-3 fatty acids such as avocados, olive oil, grapeseed oil and walnuts. Food fortified with vitamins and minerals such as milk, orange juice, yoghurt and some cereals.
Foods that you must strictly avoid during the ongoing cancer treatment are as follows:  Lightly cooked raw fish Unpasteurized cheese and other dairy products Soft-cooked eggs Unwashed vegetables or fruits
The four stages of cancer are:  Stage 1: The cancer cells are restricted to a particular location. Stage 2: Cancer keeps on increasing but does not spread. Stage 3: The cancer cells grow and extend to the lymph nodes. Stage 4: Cancer spreads to different body parts, leading to advanced stages of cancer.
There are several staging systems that pathologists use to determine the stage of cancer, the most popular among which is the TNM system. The abbreviation refers to following : T: Refers to the primary stage of tumour. N: Refers to a tumour that has spread to lymph nodes. M: Refers to metastasis, that is, advanced-stage cancer.
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